Risk management is an integral part of Caverion’s management, supervision and reporting systems. The main purpose of risk management is:
Caverion’s Risk Management Policy describes the framework and main principles of risk management, and the roles and responsibilities in risk management.
Risk management covers the identification and assessment of risks as well as contingency planning for all major risks. A group-wide risk assessment is carried out annually as an ongoing process. As a result of the assessment, the most relevant risks are reported and monitored based on their estimated probability and possible effects.
Operative and event risks are reported and followed up on a monthly basis as a part of the financial reporting.
Caverion’s significant short-term risks are described in the Company’s financial statements and interim reports. The description in the latest financial statements is available below.
Operating environment. The impacts of the corona pandemic and the consequent economic downturn on Caverion, and the actions taken by the company are summarised separately in this report.
Caverion is exposed to different types of strategic, operational, political, market, customer, financial and other risks. Caverion estimates that the trade, health and political risks are increasing globally and have partly already materialised in form of the corona pandemic. The increasing cost base, including increasing material and energy prices, could have a material adverse effect on Caverion.
Operational risks and uncertainties. Caverion's typical operational risks relate to its Services and Projects business. These include risks related to tendering (e.g. calculation and pricing), contractual terms and conditions, partnering, subcontractors and the supply chain, procurement and price of materials, long-term service commitments, guaranteed service levels, and availability of qualified personnel and project management. To manage these risks, risk assessment and review processes for both the sales and execution phase are in place, and appropriate risk reservations are being made. The Group’s Projects Business Unit and Services Business Unit are overseeing the overall risk of Projects and Services, respectively, and addressing the necessary actions to Divisions to mitigate and manage the risks.
Given the risks materialised in the Projects business, the Group Projects Business Unit is dedicated to the overall improvement of project risk management, to steering the project portfolio and to improving project management capabilities. Despite clearly defined project management processes and project controls, it is possible that some risks which could lead to project write-downs, provisions, disputes and litigations may materialise and could have a negative impact on Caverion’s financial performance and position.
Caverion made a large amount of project write-downs during the past strategy period. Systematic performance management continues to be part of the core project management processes in all divisions. In 2019 to, 2022, Caverion reported only one old major risk project from Germany in adjusted EBITA, the completion of which was delayed to the end of 2021. The project has been handed over to the customer in the end of 2021. In 2022, there were EUR 4.0 million write-downs from this last separately identified major risk project. The company no longer expects to report items in this category under items affecting comparability going forward. It is possible that further risks may emerge in regard to this old project or other projects.
Receivables. According to Group policy, write-offs or provisions are booked on receivables when it is probable that no payment can be expected. Caverion Group follows a policy in valuing trade receivables and the bookings include estimates and critical judgements. The estimates are based on experience with write-offs realised in previous years, empirical knowledge of debt collection, customer-specific collaterals and analyses as well as the general economic situation of the review period. Caverion carries out risk assessments related to POC and trade receivables in its project portfolio on an ongoing basis. There are certain individual larger receivables where the company continues its actions to negotiate and collect the receivables. There is remaining risk in the identified receivables, and it cannot be ruled out that there is also risk associated with other receivables. The corona crisis has increased the general risk level related to the financial standing of customers and the collection of receivables.
Disputes. Given the nature of Caverion’s business especially in Projects, Group companies are involved in disputes and legal proceedings in several projects. These disputes and legal proceedings typically concern claims made against Caverion for allegedly defective or delayed delivery. In some cases, the collection of receivables by Caverion may result in disputes and legal proceedings. There is a risk that the client presents counter claims in these proceedings. The outcome of claims, disputes and legal proceedings is difficult to predict. Write-downs and provisions are booked following the applicable accounting rules.
Compliance. In June 2018, Caverion reached a settlement for its part with the German Federal Office (FCO) in a cartel case that had been investigated by the authority since 2014. The investigation concerned several companies providing technical building services in Germany. Caverion Deutschland GmbH (and its predecessors) was found to have participated in anti-competitive practices between 2005 and 2013. According to the FCO’s final decision issued on 3 July 2018, Caverion Deutschland GmbH was imposed a fine of EUR 40.8 million. In the end of March 2020, the FCO issued its final decision on the cartel case against the other building technology companies involved in the matter. There is a risk that civil claims may be presented against the involved companies, including Caverion Deutschland GmbH. It is not possible to evaluate the magnitude of the risk for Caverion at this time. Some civil claims were settled between the parties in the fourth quarter of 2021 and in 2022. Caverion will disclose any relevant information on the potential civil law claims as required under the applicable regulations.
As part of Caverion’s co-operation with the authorities in the cartel matter, the company identified activities between 2009 and 2011 that were likely to fulfil the criteria of corruption or other criminal commitment in some of its client projects executed in that time. Caverion brought its findings to the attention of the authorities and supported them in investigating the case. In the end of June 2020, the public prosecutor's office in Munich informed Caverion that no further investigative measures are intended and that no formal fine proceedings against Caverion will be initiated related to those cases. There is a risk that civil claims may be presented against Caverion Deutschland GmbH. It is not possible to evaluate the magnitude of the risk for Caverion at this time. Caverion will disclose any relevant information on the potential civil law claims as required under the applicable regulations.
Caverion has made significant efforts to promote compliance in order to avoid any infringements in the future. As part of the compliance programme all employees must complete an annual e-learning module and further training is given across the organisation. All new employees have to familiarise themselves with Caverion’s Code of Conduct and to take the e-learning. All employees are required to comply with Caverion’s Code of Conduct, which has a policy of zero tolerance on anti-competitive practices, corruption, bribery or any unlawful action.
Financing. Caverion’s external loans are subject to a financial covenant based on the ratio of the Group’s net debt to EBITDA. Breaching this covenant would give the lending parties the right to declare the loans to be immediately due and payable. It is possible that Caverion may need amendments to its financial covenant in the future. The level of the financial covenant ratio is continuously monitored and evaluated against actual and forecasted EBITDA and net debt figures. The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic has increased the general risk level related to the availability of financing as well as foreign exchange related risks.
Financial guarantees. Caverion’s business typically involves granting financial guarantees to customers or other stakeholders, especially in large projects, e.g. for the security of advance payments received, performance of contractual obligations, and defects during the warranty period. Such guarantees are typically granted by financial intermediaries on behalf of Caverion. There is no assurance that the company would have continuous access to sufficient guarantees from financial intermediaries at competitive terms or at all, and the absence of such guarantees could have an adverse effect on Caverion’s business and financial situation. To manage this risk, Caverion’s target is to maintain several guarantee facilities in the countries where it operates. The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic has increased the general risk level related to the availability of guarantee facilities.
Information security. Reliability of the key IT systems and partnership is essential for Caverion's continuous operations. Prolonged disruption in the key systems could limit Caverion’s ability to conduct operations in a profitable and efficient manner. In addition, increasing sophistication of and frequency of unauthorised access and cyber threats pose a risk to Caverion's information assets. Data privacy related breaches may have a negative impact on Caverion's reputation. Over time Caverion has made significant investments in its IT systems, and there is a risk that the expected pay-back of these investments is not fully materialised.
Goodwill. Goodwill recognised on Caverion’s balance sheet is not amortised, but it is tested annually for any impairment. The amount by which the carrying amount of goodwill exceeds the recoverable amount is recognised as an impairment loss through profit and loss. If negative changes take place in Caverion’s result and growth development, this may lead to an impairment of goodwill, which may have an unfavourable effect on Caverion’s result of operations and shareholders' equity.
Financial risks have been described in more detail in the 2022 Financial Statements under Note 5.5 “Financial risk management”.
The corona pandemic continued to negatively impact Caverion’s business in 2022. While there was less impact on the demand, the level of sick leaves was particularly high in the Nordics and also higher than normally in Central Europe especially during the first half of the year 2022. During the second half of the year 2022, the effects of the pandemic started to normalise but it still had an impact on business.
The business volume and the amount of new order intake are important determinants of Caverion’s performance. Despite the somewhat more optimistic outlook of the corona pandemic, a negative scenario whereby new waves of the corona pandemic or new pandemics would emerge cannot be ruled out. However, a large part of Caverion’s services is vital in keeping critical services for buildings, industries and infrastructure up-and-running at all times.
Should the new waves of the corona pandemic or new pandemics emerge, Caverion’s business would be exposed to various risks. These include, for example, suspension or cancellation of existing contracts by customers, lack of demand for new services, absenteeism of employees and subcontractor staff, closures of work sites and other work premises by customers or authorities and defaults in customer payments.
The impact of corona pandemic on Caverion updated in interim reports available under Significant short-term risks section on Result center.
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine at the end of February 2022 increased geopolitical tensions especially in Europe overnight. The war has created uncertainties weakening the growth prospects in several countries where Caverion operates. The duration of the Ukrainian conflict and its future effects on the industry, and Caverion in particular, remain uncertain, and the overall situation remains highly volatile.
Caverion divested its Russian subsidiary at the end of 2021 and has no operations in Ukraine or Belarus. Therefore, the impact of the conflict on Caverion is currently indirect. Caverion has experienced increases in material prices and delays in the supply chain and in decision-making, however Caverion continued to manage them on a daily basis without having a significant impact on performance during 2022.